Category Archives: Packer

Getting Started With Packer to Create vSphere Templates – Part 2 – Answer Files and Scripts

Welcome to part 2 of my Getting Started with Packer series, if you missed part 1, you can find it here. In part 2, we will take a look through an important part of creating your vSphere templates; Answer Files and scripts.

Firstly, we will be looking at a couple of example scripts that can be used to configure your operating system before its turned into your template. We will then move on to answer files that allow an automated, non user prompting installation of your operating system. These answer files provide configuration details during the operating system installation.

Let’s get started!

Scripts, Drivers and Media

These can be referenced either during the installation of the operating system via the answer file, like VMTools is during the Windows example below. They can also be run by a Provisioner via PowerShell or Shell, after the operating system install has completed. If media is required during the installation of the operating system, such as disk controller drivers or VMware Tools, they need to be made available to the operating system during installation. This can be achieved in multiple ways, Floppy disks, CD_rom, via a HTTP server or a combination. Either way you are going to need them available, more on how to make them available later in the series, but for now lets look at a couple of examples.

Scripts

Disabling TLS (Windows)

Here is an example script for disabling TLS 1.0 &1.1 on Windows using a PowerShell script. This could be run during the installation via the answer file, or via the PowerShell Provisioner. If running during the installation of the OS, this must be mounted as media during the installation. If it’s being run via the Provisioner, this can be referencing directly from the working directory of the machine you are running Packer from.

#Disable TLS 1.0
new-item -path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols" -Name "TLS 1.0"
new-item -path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.0" -Name "Server"
new-item -path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.0" -Name "Client"
new-itemproperty -path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.0\Client" -Name "Enabled" -Value 0
new-itemproperty -path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.0\Client" -Name "DisabledByDefault" -Value 1
new-itemproperty -path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.0\Server" -Name "Enabled" -Value 0
new-itemproperty -path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.0\Server" -Name "DisabledByDefault" -Value 1
 
#Disable TLS 1.1
new-item -path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols" -Name "TLS 1.1"
new-item -path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.1" -Name "Server"
new-item -path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.1" -Name "Client"
new-itemproperty -path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.1\Client" -Name "Enabled" -Value 0
new-itemproperty -path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.1\Client" -Name "DisabledByDefault" -Value 1
new-itemproperty -path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.1\Server" -Name "Enabled" -Value 0
new-itemproperty -path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols\TLS 1.1\Server" -Name "DisabledByDefault" -Value 1

This is a simple script to create the required registry entries to disable TLS versions 1.0 &1.1.

Updating Installed Packages (Linux)

Now let’s look at a CentOS example. Here is an example Shell script for updating all installed packages, that again can be ran via the answer file (kickstart.cfg) or via the Shell Provisioner.

# Update existing packages
sudo yum update -y

Drivers

Depending on the type of disk controller you plan on using for your templates and subsequent virtual machines, you may need to make drivers available during the operating system installation. An example of this are drivers for ParaVirtual SCSI (PVSCSI) disk controllers. These drivers aren’t available in during a Windows installation by default and need to be provided.

These can be mounted via floppy or another method. They just need to be available during the operating system installation. I stick to floppy currently as I don’t have to do anything other than reference the folder containing the drivers, along with my answer file and required scripts:

floppy_files         = var.config_files

This is the floppy_files config line referencing the variable ‘config_files’. That variable references the path and file name of each file I wish to make available to the VM.

Here is detail of that variable as an example. It is referencing files in two directories, config and scripts, within my template parent directory.

config_files            = ["config/autounattend.xml","scripts/pvscsi","scripts/install-vm-tools.cmd","scripts/enable-winrm.ps1"]

If you don’t provide drivers where needed, your operating system installation will fail.

Media

Depending on what you intend to install on your templates, you will need to make any install media or install scripts available. Like above, you can either mount any media to the VM using the floppy_files option and run the installs from the answer file, or via the Provisioner referencing your local working directory.

Examples of media or installations could be security products such as Antivirus or Data Loss Preventions agents, Management/Monitoring agents such as System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM) or System Center Operations Manager (SCOM).

There is no right or wrong answer as to what you should include in your templates, this is something you need to decide based upon your needs and environment. Although I would say, keep them as light as possible and use the right tool for the job. Consider using configuration management tools when its the right time too!

Answer Files

As we touched upon above, answer files are used to provide configuration details during the operating system install. In this blog, we will take a look at two types of answer files; A windows autounattended.xml & a CentOS kickstart.cfg.

Lets begin with the Windows answer file. You can create a Windows answer file using the Windows System Image Manager (Windows SIM) which you can find more information on here.

There are multiple sections within this file from the locale settings, disk partition configurations, the edition of Windows and even a section to stop the administrator account from expiring.

Here is a cut down example of a Windows answer file, you can find a complete example on my GitHub:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<unattend xmlns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:unattend">
    <settings pass="windowsPE">
        <component name="Microsoft-Windows-International-Core-WinPE" processorArchitecture="amd64" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" language="neutral" versionScope="nonSxS" xmlns:wcm="http://schemas.microsoft.com/WMIConfig/2002/State" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
            <SetupUILanguage>
                <UILanguage>en-US</UILanguage>
            </SetupUILanguage>
            <InputLocale>en-GB</InputLocale>
            <SystemLocale>en-GB</SystemLocale>
            <UILanguage>en-US</UILanguage>
            <UserLocale>en-US</UserLocale>
        </component>
...
        <component name="Microsoft-Windows-Setup" processorArchitecture="amd64" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" language="neutral" versionScope="nonSxS" xmlns:wcm="http://schemas.microsoft.com/WMIConfig/2002/State" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
            <DiskConfiguration>
                <Disk wcm:action="add">
                    <CreatePartitions>
                        <CreatePartition wcm:action="add">
                            <Order>1</Order>
                            <Size>350</Size>
                            <Type>Primary</Type>
                        </CreatePartition>
                        <CreatePartition wcm:action="add">
                            <Order>2</Order>
                            <Size>100</Size>
                            <Type>EFI</Type>
                        </CreatePartition>
...
                </Disk>
                <WillShowUI>OnError</WillShowUI>
            </DiskConfiguration>
...
            <UserData>
                <AcceptEula>true</AcceptEula>
            </UserData>
        </component>
    </settings>
    <settings pass="specialize">
...
        <component name="Microsoft-Windows-Deployment" processorArchitecture="amd64" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" language="neutral" versionScope="nonSxS" xmlns:wcm="http://schemas.microsoft.com/WMIConfig/2002/State" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
            <RunSynchronous>
                <RunSynchronousCommand wcm:action="add">
                    <Order>1</Order>
                    <Description>Disable Network Discovery</Description>
                    <Path>cmd.exe /c a:\disable-network-discovery.cmd</Path>
                </RunSynchronousCommand>
            </RunSynchronous>
        </component>
    </settings>
    <settings pass="oobeSystem">
        <component name="Microsoft-Windows-Shell-Setup" processorArchitecture="amd64" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" language="neutral" versionScope="nonSxS" xmlns:wcm="http://schemas.microsoft.com/WMIConfig/2002/State" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
            <AutoLogon>
                <Password>
                    <Value>VgBNAHcAYQByAGUAMQAyADMAIQA=</Value>
                    <PlainText>false</PlainText>
                </Password>
                <LogonCount>2</LogonCount>
                <Username>Administrator</Username>
                <Enabled>true</Enabled>
            </AutoLogon>
                    <FirstLogonCommands>
...
                <SynchronousCommand wcm:action="add">
                    <CommandLine>cmd.exe /c wmic useraccount where "name='Administrator'" set PasswordExpires=FALSE</CommandLine>
                    <Order>10</Order>
                    <Description>Disable password expiration for Administrator user</Description>
                </SynchronousCommand>
                <SynchronousCommand wcm:action="add">
                    <CommandLine>cmd.exe /c a:\install-vm-tools.cmd</CommandLine>
                    <Order>11</Order>
                    <Description>Install VMware Tools</Description>
                </SynchronousCommand>
                <SynchronousCommand wcm:action="add">
                    <CommandLine>cmd.exe /c C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe -File a:\enable-winrm.ps1</CommandLine>
                    <Description>Enable WinRM</Description>
                    <Order>99</Order>
                </SynchronousCommand> 
            </FirstLogonCommands>
...
            <UserAccounts>
                <AdministratorPassword>
                    <Value>VgBNAHcAYQByAGUAMQAyADMAIQA=</Value>
                    <PlainText>false</PlainText>
                </AdministratorPassword>
            </UserAccounts>
        </component>
    </settings>
    <cpi:offlineImage cpi:source="wim:c:/wim/install.wim#Windows Server 2019 SERVERSTANDARDCORE" xmlns:cpi="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:cpi" />
</unattend>

Key parts of this file are the installation of VMTools and the enabling of WinRM:

<SynchronousCommand wcm:action="add">
                    <CommandLine>cmd.exe /c a:\install-vm-tools.cmd</CommandLine>
                    <Order>11</Order>
                    <Description>Install VMware Tools</Description>
                </SynchronousCommand>
<SynchronousCommand wcm:action="add">
                    <CommandLine>cmd.exe /c C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe -File a:\enable-winrm.ps1</CommandLine>
                    <Description>Enable WinRM</Description>
                    <Order>99</Order>
                </SynchronousCommand>

VMTools is important to make sure that the correct drivers are installed, ensuring you can get a network connection etc, and you need WinRM and the appropriate firewall rules to be enabled, to allow Packer to continue any post OS install configurations to take place via PowerShell Provisioner block. If WinRM isn’t enabled and working, you wont be able to complete any post install configuration actions!

You will notice both these actions are achieved by running a script from a floppy drive. A:\<scriptname>. As touched upon earlier, these can be made available to the virtual machine as floppy disks (other options available) as it is built and subsequently removed when the build is complete.

One other setting to mention, the Administrator password in encrypted, you don’t want to be leaving this in plain text!

<Password>
                    <Value>VgBNAHcAYQByAGUAMQAyADMAIQA=</Value>
                    <PlainText>flase</PlainText>
                </Password>

Lets now take a look at a Linux Kickstart.cfg file, again cut down but a complete annotated example can be found here:

install
cdrom
lang en_GB
keyboard --vckeymap=uk --xlayouts='gb'
network --onboot yes --bootproto=dhcp --activate
rootpw --iscrypted $1$JlSBrxl.$ksXaF7TIE.70iV12//V4R0
firewall --disabled
authconfig –enableshadow –enablemd5
selinux --permissive
timezone --utc Europe/london --isUtc
bootloader --location=mbr --append="crashkernel=auto rhgb quiet" --password=$1$JlSBrxl.$ksXaF7TIE.70iV12//V4R0
autopart --type=lvm
clearpart --linux --initlabel
firstboot --disabled
eula --agreed
services --enabled=NetworkManager,sshd
user --name=linux_user --iscrypted --password=$1$JlSBrxl.$ksXaF7TIE.70iV12//V4R0 --groups=wheel
%packages --ignoremissing --excludedocs
@core
sudo
net-tools
ntp
ntpdate
vim
wget
curl
git
yum-utils
perl
-aic94xx-firmware
-alsa-*
-btrfs-progs*
-centos-logos
-dracut-config-rescue
-dracut-network
-microcode_ctl
-NetworkManager*
-ivtv-firmware
-iwl*firmware
-plymouth*
%end 
%post
chkconfig ntpd on
chkconfig sshd on
chkconfig ypbind on
chkconfig iptables off
chkconfig ip6tables off
chkconfig yum-updatesd off
chkconfig haldaemon off
chkconfig mcstrans off
chkconfig sysstat off
echo "linux_user        ALL=(ALL)       NOPASSWD: ALL" >> /etc/sudoers.d/linux_user
sed -i "s/^.*requiretty/#Defaults requiretty/" /etc/sudoers
%end
reboot --eject

Although this may look completely different it is still doing similar things as a Windows answerfile.

We are still detailing locale settings and encrypted passwords:

rootpw --iscrypted $1$JlSBrxl.$ksXaF7TIE.70iV12//V4R0

There is also a networking section. In this case I am specifying that I want the operating system to use DHCP:

network --onboot yes --bootproto=dhcp --activate

Also the packages section is quite useful. Here you can specify any packages you want to install during the operating system installation.

%packages --ignoremissing --excludedocs
@core
sudo
net-tools
ntp
ntpdate
vim
wget
curl
git
yum-utils
perl

In Part 3 we will dive into variables in more detail!

Thanks for reading!

Getting Started With Packer to Create vSphere Templates – Part 1

Virtual Machines Templates, why? Templates are a great way to achieve consistent, repeatable and fast virtual machine (VM) deployments, be it an on-premise vSphere environment or cloud based environment. Having up to date VM templates for each of the operating systems you use, is key to being able to deploy infrastructure quickly and easily across multiple platforms.

In this series of blog posts, I will be focusing on deploying virtual machine templates in vSphere, specifically vSphere 7, using a product called Packer by HashiCorp. Packer is an Infrastructure as Code tool specifically for template management.

There is so much that can be done with Packer. I aim to be able to give you enough information to be able to start your journey with Packer.

Throughout this series, I will reference two templates as examples. A Windows (Windows 2019 Core), and a Linux (CentOS 7) template to give you an idea of the differences, and will also give you a basis that you can apply to other operating systems. But to start we of course need to know how to install Packer and understand the components! Let’s get started!

Installing Packer

Firstly you are going to need to download the Packer executable from the Packer website, here. The latest version at the time of writing is 1.7.0. This is an exciting release for many reasons, but specifically that its moved over to HCL (Hashicorp Configuration Language) from JSON! This brings it closer inline with the other Hashicorp products such as Terraform which already use HCL.

You have a choice of downloads for multiple operating systems. Everything in this blog series will be done on a Windows 10 machine.

Now you need to unzip the download and copy ‘packer.exe’ to either an existing PATH directory or create a new one. For simplicity here, I have copied the executable to ‘C:\Windows\System32’.

Another option for installing on Windows is to use Chocolatey by running the following:

choco install packer

All installation options can be found here.

Once done, you can confirm its working by opening a PowerShell Terminal and running the Packer executable:

packer

The Command Line

Packer has a simple command line to build your templates, you will have seen the available options when you ran ‘packer’ to check your install.

Lets take a look at a few of them that we might see during this series:

  • build: Builds the template you have defined.
  • fmt: This is a nice command that will format your code. Anyone who likes their code to look tidy formatting wise, will like this one!
  • hcl2_upgrade: For anyone that has been using Packer with JSON configuration files, this is a great starting point to get your code converted to HCL. Be aware its not perfect in my experience and will need to be manually tweaked, but it gets you on your way.
  • validate: This checks whether your template is valid. It will check to make sure your syntax is correct and has all mandatory values set for any resources you make use of.
  • version: This is a quick easy way to check which version of Packer you are currently using.

As we saw above, you can find brief descriptions for the remaining options by running ‘packer’ from the command line.

Blocks

There are multiple blocks that can be used to build your virtual machine templates. You can find a complete list here, but lets take a look at some of the ones you will see throughout this series.

Source Blocks

There are two types of source blocks, top level that can be used and reused by multiple builder blocks, and then there are nested source blocks which can be used to inject build specific content.

Build Blocks

Build blocks are used to build your templates, in this case by referencing a source block. It can reference any top level source blocks you have referenced or source blocks nested within your build and merge them to produce a complete configuration.

Provisioner blocks and Post-Processor blocks are also referenced in the build block. More on what they do below…

snippet of a build block referencing a top level source block

Provisioner Blocks

Provisioners are how we interface with your template once the operating system is installed. They will use either SSH or WinRM to communicate with the operating system.

We will be focusing on three provisioners throughout the series; Shell for Linux, PowerShell for Windows, and a community managed provisioner called ‘Windows Update Provisioner’.

Both PowerShell and Shell can be used to run scripts, commands, copy files (you can also use the File Provisioner to do this), install software, basically anything you want. The Windows Update provisioner, is exactly what it sounds like. It’s a way of installing the latest Windows patches. More on that later.

There are multiple HashiCorp supported provisioners available which you can find here.

Post-Processor Blocks

Finally, Post-Processors, these run once the build is complete, but its not mandatory to use them. I haven’t really used them yet apart from producing a manifest file which you will see included later in the series.

Information on the available Post-Processors can be found here.

Folder Structure, Configuration Files and Scripts

There are many ways to set out your configuration files for your templates in which ever directory structure you wish. This is the way I have found logical for me; by separating the configuration out into multiple files (mainly the 3 highlighted in Bold below), it makes it easier to reuse your code.

Folder Structure

--> OperatingSystemName
 -->config
     -->answerfile.filename
  -->output
  -->scripts
     -->drivers
         -->driver.file
         -->driver1.file
     -->configurationscript1.ps1
     -->configurationscript2.sh
     -->install_VM_Tools.cmd
  -->variables.pkr.hcl
  -->build.pkr.hcl
  -->userdefinedvars.pkrvar.hcl

You can have a set of folders per operating system .

Configuration Files, Scripts and Drivers

All Packer configuration files use the file extension; .pkr.hcl apart from your user defined variables file which uses the .pkrvar.hcl extension. Lets take a look at each file.

Variables Declaration file (example – variables.pkr.hcl): This file is where you declare all the variables you want to reference in your source, build or provisioner blocks. This includes user defined variables and environmental variables.

User Defined Variables file (example – win2019.pkrvar.hcl ): This file is where you will define your user variable values. This could include values for Template Name, CPU, RAM and disk size for instance. These variable values are in plain text, therefore you don’t want to be keeping sensitive values such as passwords in this file in any scenario outside of a lab. These can be handled by environment variables which we will see in later parts of the series.

‘Build’ file (example – win2019.pkr.hcl): This is where you define your template using a Source Block that we mentioned earlier, and build it using a Build Block. In this case we are going to be using the ‘vSphere-ISO’ Source.

Operating System Answer File (example autounattended.xml: This is the answer file needed to complete the installation of your operating system. For Windows this would be an autounattend.xml file and for CentOS, a kickstart.cfg file.

Scripts and Drivers: Finally you will need any scripts, drivers or media ready to reference in either the answer files or for use by a provisioner. The output file is not a prerequisite, as this is generated by the post processor at the end of the build.

In a later part of this series I will break down each of the components and blocks, and explain the content of a Windows and Linux template build in further detail.

So what next? In part 2, we will take a closer look at the operating system answer files and some example scripts & drivers that can be used or are required.

Thanks for reading!